Determination of Ferulic Acid in Angelica sinensis by Temperature-Controlled Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids-Based Ultrasound/Heating-Assisted Extraction Coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Hydrophilic ionic liquids are often used to extract the active ingredients of medicinal plants, while hydrophobic ionic liquids are rarely used to directly extract solid samples. In this paper, a simple, novel and efficient temperature-controlled hydrophobic ionic liquids-based ultrasound/heating-assisted extraction (TC-ILs-UHAE) procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and applied to the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in Chinese herbal medicine
... lica sinensis. During the extraction procedure, hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) were dispersed into water to form cloudy solution (fine droplets) with the aid of ultrasound and heating simultaneous. After extraction, phase separation was easily achieved by centrifuging at 0 °C. Among all ILs used, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide ([C4mim]NTf2) exhibited the highest extraction ability and the possible extraction mechanism was discussed. Additionally, the synergistic effect of heating and ultrasound on the extraction efficiency was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity was observed with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9995. The limit of detection of FA (LOD, S/N = 3) was 9.6 µg/L and the spiked recoveries of FA for real samples were in the range of 91.67 to 102.00% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 3.87%. Compared with the traditional extraction methods, the proposed method gave the highest yield of FA and had the shortest extraction time. Therefore, this method is a potential simple, green and highly efficient technique and expected to be applied to the extraction of other bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants.