Long-term Variability of H2CO Masers in Star-forming Regions

N. Andreev, E. D. Araya, I. M. Hoffman, P. Hofner, S. Kurtz, H. Linz, L. Olmi, I. Lorran-Costa
2017 Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series  
We present results of a multi-epoch monitoring program on variability of 6$\,$cm formaldehyde (H$_2$CO) masers in the massive star forming region NGC$\,$7538$\,$IRS$\,$1 from 2008 to 2015 conducted with the GBT, WSRT, and VLA. We found that the similar variability behaviors of the two formaldehyde maser velocity components in NGC$\,$7538$\,$IRS$\,$1 (which was pointed out by Araya and collaborators in 2007) have continued. The possibility that the variability is caused by changes in the maser
more » ... nges in the maser amplification path in regions with similar morphology and kinematics is discussed. We also observed 12.2$\,$GHz methanol and 22.2$\,$GHz water masers toward NGC$\,$7538$\,$IRS$\,$1. The brightest maser components of CH$_3$OH and H$_2$O species show a decrease in flux density as a function of time. The brightest H$_2$CO maser component also shows a decrease in flux density and has a similar LSR velocity to the brightest H$_2$O and 12.2$\,$GHz CH$_3$OH masers. The line parameters of radio recombination lines and the 20.17 and 20.97$\,$GHz CH$_3$OH transitions in NGC$\,$7538$\,$IRS$\,$1 are also reported. In addition, we observed five other 6$\,$cm formaldehyde maser regions. We found no evidence of significant variability of the 6$\,$cm masers in these regions with respect to previous observations, the only possible exception being the maser in G29.96$-$0.02. All six sources were also observed in the H$_2^{13}$CO isotopologue transition of the 6$\,$cm H$_2$CO line; H$_2^{13}$CO absorption was detected in five of the sources. Estimated column density ratios [H$_2^{12}$CO]/[H$_2^{13}$CO] are reported.
doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa8b15 fatcat:rgwdrrzrqvemrgjwe2hejybmh4