Crop-to-wild gene flow, introgression and possible fitness effects of transgenes

Eric Jenczewski, Joëlle Ronfort, Anne-Marie Chèvre
2003 Environmental Biosafety Research  
Crop-to-wild gene flow has received close attention over the past ten years in connection with the development and cultivation of transgenic crops. In this paper, we review key examples of crop/wild sympatry and overlapping flowering phenology, pollen and seed dispersal, the barriers to hybridisation and introgression, the evolution and fate of interspecific hybrids, their fitness, and the potential cost of transgenes. We pay particular attention to ways in which the evolution and divergence
more » ... ween crops and their wild relatives may interfere with these successive steps. Our review suggests that crop-to-weed gene flow is highly idiosyncratic and that crop gene dispersion will certainly be very difficult to preclude totally. Future directions for research should thus focus on the long-term establishment and effects of transgenes on natural communities. Arias DM, Rieseberg LH (1994) Gene flow between cultivated and wild sunflowers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 89: 655-660 Arnold ML (1997) Natural hybridization and evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford Arriola PE, Ellstrand NC (1996) Crop-to-weed gene flow in the genus Sorghum (Poaceae): spontaneous interspecific hybridization between johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense, and crop sorghum, S. bicolor. Am. J. Bot. 83: 1153-1160 Arriola PE, Ellstrand NC (1997) Fitness of interspecific hybrids in the genus Sorghum: persistence of crop genes in wild populations. Ecol. Appl. 7: 512-518 Baranger A, Chèvre AM, Eber F, Renard M (1995) Effect of oilseed rape genotype on the spontaneous hybridization rate with a weedy species: an assessment of transgene dispersal. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91: 956-963 Bartsch D, Lehnen M, Clegg J, Pohl-Orf M, Schuphan I, Ellstrand NC (1999) Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations. Mol. Ecol. 8: 1733-1741 Bergelson J (1994) Changes in fecundity do not predict invasiveness: a model study of transgenic plants. Ecology 75: 249-252 Bing DJ, Downey RK, Rakow GFM (1996) Hybridizations among Brassica napus, B. rapa and B. juncea and their weedy relatives B. nigra and Sinapis arvensis under open pollination conditions in the fields. Plant Breed. 115: 470-473 Boudry P, Mörchen M, Saumitou-Laprade P, Vernet P, Van Dijk H (1993) The origin and evolution of weed beets: consequences for the breeding and release of herbicide-resistant transgenic sugar beets. Theor. Appl. Genet. 87: 471-478 Bretagnolle F, Thompson JD (1995) Gametes with the somatic chromosome number: mechanisms of their formation and role in the evolution of autopolyploid plants. New Phytol. 129: 1-22 Burke JM, Voss TJ, Arnold ML (1998) Genetic interactions and natural selection in Louisiana iris hybrids. Evolution 52: 1304-1310 Chadoeuf R, Darmency H, Maillet J, Renard M (1998) Survival of buried seeds of interspecific hybrids between oilseed rape, hoary mustard and wild radish. Field Crop Res. 58: 197-204 Chèvre AM, Eber F, Baranger A, Renard M (1997) Gene flow from transgenic crops. Nature 389: 924 Chèvre AM, Eber F, Baranger A, Boucherie R, Broucqsault LM, Bouchet Y, Renard M (1998a) Risks assessment on crucifer species. Acta Hort. 459: 219-224 Chèvre AM, Eber F, Baranger A, Hureau G, Barret P, Picault H, Renard M (1998b) Characterisation of backcross generations obtained under field conditions from oilseed rape-wild radish F1 interspecific hybrids: an assessment of transgene dispersal. Theor. Appl. Genet. 97: 80-98 Chèvre AM, Eber F, Darmency H, Fleury A, Picault H, Letanneur JC, Renard M (2000) Assessment of interspecific hybridization between transgenic oilseed rape and wild radish under normal agronomic conditions. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100: 1233-1239 Conner AJ, Dale PJ (1996) Reconsideration of pollen dispersal data from field trials of transgenic potatoes. Theor. Appl. Genet. 92: 505-508 Crawley MJ, Brown SL (1995) Seed limitation and the dynamics of feral oilseed rape on the M25 motorway. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 259: 49-54 Crawley MJ, Hails RS, Rees M, Kohn D, Buxton J (1993) Ecology of transgenic oilseed rape in natural habitats. Nature 363: 620-623 Darmency H, Lefol E, Fleury A (1998) Spontaneous hybridizations between oilseed rape and wild radish. Mol. Ecol. 7: 1467-1473 David JL, Bousseau D, Dussautoir J-C (2000) Étude sur les possibilités d'hybridation entre les blés cultivés et quelques espèces apparentées (Aegilops spp.) en France. XI e colloque international sur la biologie des mauvaises herbes. Dijon, France, pp 6-8 Review: Crop-to-wild gene flow, introgression and fitness effects of transgenes Environ. Biosafety Res. 2, 1 (2003) 21 De Vries FT, van der Meijden R, Brandenburg WA (1992) Botanical files: a study of the real chances for spontaneous gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora of the Netherlands. Gorteria suppl1, Rijksherbarium / Hortus Botanicus, Leiden De Wet JMJ, Harlan JR (1975) Weeds and domesticates: Evolution in the man-made habitat. Econ. Bot. 29: 99-107 Delourme R, Foisset N, Horvais R, Barret P, Champagne G, Cheung WY, Landry BS, Renard M (1998) Characterisation of the radish introgression carrying the Rfo restorer gene for the Ogu-INRA cytoplasmic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 97: 129-134 Doebley JF (1990) Molecular evidence for gene flow among Zea species. Bioscience 40: 443-448 Dvorak J (1972) Genetic variability in Aegilops speltoides affecting homoelogous pairing in wheat. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 14: 371-380 Eber F, Chèvre AM, Baranger A, Vallée P, Tanguy X, Renard M (1994) Spontaneous hybridization between a male-sterile oilseed rape and two weeds. Theor. Appl. Genet. 88: 362-368 Eber F, Boucherie R, Broucqsault LM, Bouchet Y, Chèvre AM (1998) Spontaneous hybridization between vegetable crops and weeds 1. Garden radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Agronomie 18: 489-497 Ellstrand NC (1992) Gene flow by pollen; implications for plant conservation genetics. Oikos 63: 77-86 Ellstrand NC (2001) When transgenes wander, should we worry? Plant Physiol. 125: 1543-1545 Ellstrand NC, Hoffman CA (1990) Hybridization as an avenue of escape for engineered genes. Bioscience 40: 438-442 Ellstrand NC, Schierenbelk KA (2000) Hybridization: a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 7043-7050 Ellstrand NC, Devlin D, Marshall DL (1989) Gene flow by pollen into small populations: Data from experimental and natural stands of wild radish. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 9044-9047 Ellstrand NC, Prentice HC, Hancock JF (1999) Gene flow and introgression from domesticated plants into their wild relatives. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30: 539-563 Evans MMS, Kermicle JL (2001) Teosinte crossing barrier1, a locus governing hybridisation of teosinte with maize. Theor. Appl. Genet. 103: 259-265 Frankel OM, Brown AHD, Burdon JJ (1995) The conservation of plant biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 299 p Gallais A, Bannerot H (1992) Amélioration des espèces végétales cultivées. Objectifs et critères de sélection. INRA Éditions, Paris Gauthier FM, McGinnis RC (1968) The meiotic behaviour of a nulli-haploid plant in Avena sativa. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 10:
doi:10.1051/ebr:2003001 fatcat:dmeustp6gbgcfamsblf4pvavru