Measurement report: Molecular characteristics of cloud water in southern China and insights into aqueous-phase processes from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

Wei Sun, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Feng Jiang, Xiufeng Lian, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Jianmin Chen, Xinming Wang (+3 others)
2021 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
Abstract. Characterizing the molecular composition of cloud water could provide unique insights into aqueous chemistry. Field measurements were conducted at Mt. Tianjing in southern China in May, 2018. There are thousands of formulas (C5–30H4–55O1–15N0–2S0–2) identified in cloud water by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). CHON formulas (formulas containing C, H, O, and N elements; the same is true for CHO and CHOS) represent the dominant component (43.6
more » ... .3 % of relative abundance), followed by CHO (13.8 %–52.1%). S-containing formulas constitute ∼5 %–20 % of all assigned formulas. Cloud water has a relative-abundance-weighted average O/C of 0.45–0.56, and the double bond equivalent of 5.10–5.70. Most of the formulas (>85 %) are assigned as aliphatic and olefinic species. No statistical difference in the oxidation state is observed between cloud water and interstitial PM2.5. CHON with aromatic structures are abundant in cloud water, suggesting their enhanced in-cloud formation. Other organics in cloud water are mainly from biomass burning and oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds. The cloud water contains more abundant CHON and CHOS at night, which are primarily contributed by −N2O5 function and organosulfates, demonstrating the enhanced formation in dark aqueous or multi-phase reactions. While more abundant CHO is observed during the daytime, likely due to the photochemical oxidation and photolysis of N- or S-containing formulas. The results provide an improved understanding of the in-cloud aqueous-phase reactions.
doi:10.5194/acp-21-16631-2021 fatcat:mbiw7whxb5afjajk4i7dazjt6a