Larry A. Hull
2007 Arthropod Management Tests  
Aphid natural enemies (NE): Ladybeetles, Lacewings, Syrphids, Mullein bugs, etc. Codling moth (CM): Cydia pomonella (L.) European red mite (ERM): Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Leafroller (LR): mixture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker); and tufted apple bud moth, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) Predatory lady beetle (SP): Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Phytoseiid mite predators; (PMP): Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman),
more » ... us pyri (Scheuten) Plum curculio (PC): Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) Rosy apple aphid (RAA): Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) Oriental fruit moth (OFM): Grapholita molesta (Busck) Spirea aphid (SA): Aphis spiraecola Patch Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM): Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) Tarnished plant bug (PB): Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) This study was designed to evaluate a number of registered products for their efficacy against the codling moth and the Oriental fruit moth as well as other pests present. All treatments were applied to single-tree plots in a randomized block design consisting of two replicates of 'Fuji', two replicates of 'Golden Delicious' and one replicate of 'Yorking' with buffer trees between plots. All trees were planted to a spacing of 20 × 30 ft and were 13 years old. All treatments were applied with a Durand-Wayland airblast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. Applications dates for all treatments are listed in Table 1 . All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Dithane 75DF, Nova 40WP, Flint 50WP, Topsin M 85WDG and Ziram 76WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. A complete application of Provado 1.6 F (106 ml/acre) and Zeal 72WDG (53 g/acre) was made to all trees on 29 Jul to reduce potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) and ERM populations. Treatment timings were based on the accumulation of degree days from biofix, orthe first sustained adult moth capture in a sex pheromone trap for both CM and OFM. Degree-day calculations were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 50°F-88°F (CM), and 45°F-90°F (OFM). Degree-day calculations for TABM and OBLR were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 45°F-91°F (TABM) and 43°F-91°F (OBLR). RAA populations were assessed by counting the number of injured clusters/3-min examination per tree. STLM was evaluated by counting the number of tissue-feeding mines present during a 5-min examination around the periphery of each plot tree. OFM shoot injury was assessed by determining the number of injured shoots per tree in a 3-min examination. Effectiveness of the treatments on SA was evaluated by counting the number of aphid-infested leaves/10 actively growing shoots/tree. The total number of aphid NE was determined by counting the number observed on the same 10 shoots examined for SA. Apples exhibiting frass were determined by examining 150 apples per tree in situ and calculating the percentage of apples with frass. Effectiveness of the test chemicals on ERM and PMP was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree, 125 leaves/treatment. S. punctum adults and larvae were counted by making a 3-min assessment while walking slowly around the periphery of each sample tree. Effectiveness of the chemicals on all fruit feeding pests was assessed by scoring for injury dropped apples on 12, 19, and 27 Jul, 9 and 18 Aug, and three picked samples of 10, 35 and 100 fruit per replication on 4 and 15 Aug, and 15 Sep, respectively. All live internal feeding larvae were collected from the fruit samples and identified to species. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and mean separation using Fisher's Protected LSD test. Appropriate transformations (e.g., log, square root, arcsine) were used if necessary. Pest pressure was moderate to high throughout the season. The treatment program of Imidan/Assail/Rimon/Calypso with Imidan applied on 9 May was the only treatment that failed
doi:10.1093/amt/32.1.a11 fatcat:62vslewmyzaavf3ka25f3tsdam