Understanding the OT cyber risk on board ship and ship stability

Remus Zăgan, Constanta Maritime University, Gabriel Raicu, Constanta Maritime University
2019 Analele Universităţii "Dunărea de Jos" din Galaţi. Fascicula XI, Construcţii navale/ Annals of "Dunărea de Jos" of Galati, Fascicle XI, Shipbuilding  
In the last years cyber security has become a relevant issue for the maritime industry. The increasing digitalization in the maritime sector enables the remote communication between the ships and the headquarter company by means of information technology systems, and most of the operational technology (OT) equipment on board ships exchanges online communications data with the shore for monitoring the main functions of the ship. Failure the vessel operational technology (OT) equipment on board
more » ... quipment on board ship, like the ECDIS map for navigation, the steering systems and the main engine controls, has serious consequences. In this article we discussed the vulnerability of different OT equipments on board ship, and we highlighted how the hacker can inject some malware that affects the hull stress monitoring systems (HSMS), or can easy manipulate the EDI messaging text of the load plan (there is still a significant lack of security in the validation of message integrity) that finally leads to detrimental effects on the the ship's stability. A possible interdependence between Ballast Management and Thrust Management results from the figure 8. Similar to classical Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) [3], in figure 9 we present the NMEA 2000 which consists in few communication layers.
doi:10.35219/annugalshipbuilding.2019.42.11 fatcat:ll26bx5olzgx7iqhjmjsh7rzfu