Physicochemical, biochemical and sensory properties for the characterization of Petrovská klobása (traditional fermented sausage)
Acta Periodica Technologica
A study was carried out on a typical homemade Petrovská klobasá in order to characterize this traditional dry-fermented sausage, to provide a basis for establishing the quality standard and protecting designation of origin. This paper reviews the chemical composition, some physicochemical, proteolytic and sensory parameters of Petrovská klobasá made by five manufacturers chosen as representatives. Beside the differences between sausages made by different manufacturers the main properties of
... n properties of this traditional product were though recognized. Compared to other dry-fermented sausages Petrovská klobasá is characterized by a high content of protein (23.36-30.45%) and low contents of . With some minor exceptions, the values of other chemical parameters are within the range of those observed for various dry-cured sausages. Weight loss during the processing is high (up to 45.71%) and pH value (~ 5.4) corresponds to the values for this parameter in other European traditional fermented sausages. Contents of different nitrogen fractions show that Petrovská klobasá undergoes significant proteolytic changes. At the end of ripening, Petrovská klobasá is characterized by aromatic and spicy-hot flavor, dark-red color and hard consistency. Original scientific paper 20 rooted in tradition and linked to the territory. Thus, there is a wide variety of dry-fermented meat products on the European market as a consequence of variations in the raw materials, formulations and manufacturing processes, which come from the habits and customs of the different countries and regions (3, 4) . Petrovská klobasá, traditional dry-cured sausage, is made in an area nearby town of Bački Petrovac in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia). It is a part of Slovaks' heritage, who inhabited Vojvodina in the second half of 18th century. Nowadays, they are producing it in traditional way according to the original recipe of their ancestors, without the use of nitrate/nitrite, glucono delta-lactone (GDL) and microbial starters. In village households, this sausage is made in the end of November and during December. This is when the temperatures are around 0 o C or lower. Petrovská klobása is prepared by mixing ground pork meat and lard with addition of red hot paprika powder, salt, crushed garlic, caraway and shugar. Well mixed compound is stuffed into natural casing, back part of pig large intestines (colon), in the units of 35-45cm length. After stuffing it undergoes smoking process for about 10 days with pauses, using specific kinds of wood. Afterwards it is left to dry and ripen for a period of up to 4 months, until it achieves optimum quality. At the end of ripening Petrovská klobasá is characterized by specific savoury taste, aromatic and spicy-hot flavor, dark red color and hard consistency. Aiming to establish quality standard and protect designation of the origin, traditional process of manufacturing and gross characteristics of Petrovská klobasá have been investigated in a number of rural households. Some biochemical, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of sausages, produced by five representative manufacturers, are presented in this paper. EXPERIMENTAL Samples Sausages were produced during December and the processes of drying and ripening lasted 120 days, when the manufacturers, according to their experience, estimated that the production process was finished. Samples (n=3) from each batch (A, B, C, D, E) were taken on the 0, 50, 80 and 120 th day after preparation, transported to the laboratory under refrigeration (4 o C) and analyzed on the same day. Аnalysis Moisture, fat, protein (Kjeldahl N x 6.25), NaCl and ash contents were quantified according to the ISO recommended standards (5-9). Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content was determined in filtrate using Kjeldahl method (7) after quantitative precipitation of proteins with 10% TCA. α-aminoacidic nitrogen (NH 2 -N) was determined according to Sörensen's formol titration (1907) modified by Petrov (1965) (10). Analyses for all samples were carried out in duplicate. To determine weight loss, five sausages from each batch were weighed just after stuffing. The same sausages were reweighed on the 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 th day. The differences in weight are expressed as the percentage of the initial weight.