Three-dimensional velocity map imaging: Setup and resolution improvement compared to three-dimensional ion imaging
Review of Scientific Instruments
For many years the three-dimensional ͑3D͒ ion imaging technique has not benefited from the introduction of ion optics into the field of imaging in molecular dynamics. Thus, a lower resolution of kinetic energy as in comparable techniques making use of inhomogeneous electric fields was inevitable. This was basically due to the fact that a homogeneous electric field was needed in order to obtain the velocity component in the direction of the time of flight spectrometer axis. In our approach we
... erimpose an Einzel lens field with the homogeneous field. We use a simulation based technique to account for the distortion of the ion cloud caused by the inhomogeneous field. In order to demonstrate the gain in kinetic energy resolution compared to conventional 3D Ion Imaging, we use the spatial distribution of H + ions emerging from the photodissociation of HCl following the two photon excitation to the V 1 ͚ + state. So far a figure of merit of approximately four has been achieved, which means in absolute numbers ⌬v / v = 0.022 compared to 0.086 at v Ϸ 17 000 m / s. However, this is not a theoretical limit of the technique, but due to our rather short TOF spectrometer ͑15 cm͒. The photodissociation of HBr near 243 nm has been used to recognize and eliminate systematic deviations between the simulation and the experimentally observed distribution. The technique has also proven to be essential for the precise measurement of translationally cold distributions.