The Dosimetric Impact of Deep Learning-Based Auto-Segmentation of Organs at Risk on Nasopharyngeal and Rectal Cancer
PurposeTo investigate the dosimetric impact of deep learning-based auto-segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) on nasopharyngeal and rectal cancer.Methods and MaterialsTwenty patients, including ten nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and ten rectal cancer patients, who received radiotherapy in our department were enrolled in this study. Two deep learning-based auto-segmentation systems, including an in-house developed system (FD) and a commercial product (UIH), were used to generate two
... to generate two auto-segmented OARs sets (OAR_FD and OAR_UIH). Treatment plans based on auto-segmented OARs and following our clinical requirements were generated for each patient on each OARs set (Plan_FD and Plan_UIH). Geometric metrics (Hausdorff distance (HD), mean distance to agreement (MDA), the Dice similarity coefficient (DICE) and the Jaccard index) were calculated for geometric evaluation. The dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing Plan_FD and Plan_UIH to original clinically approved plans (Plan_Manual) with dose-volume indices and 3D gamma pass rates. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between dosimetric deviation and geometric metrics.ResultsFD and UIH could provide similar geometric performance in parotids, temporal lobes, lens, and eyes (DICE, p > 0.05). OAR_FD had better geometric performance in the optic nerves, oral cavity, larynx, and femoral heads (DICE, p < 0.05). OAR_UIH had better geometric performance in the bladder (DICE, p < 0.05). In dosimetric analysis, both Plan_FD and Plan_UIH had nonsignificant dosimetric differences compared to Plan_Manual for most PTV and OARs dose-volume indices. The only significant dosimetric difference was the Dmax of the left temporal lobe for Plan_FD vs. Plan_Manual (p = 0.05). Only one significant correlation was found between the mean dose of the femoral head and its HD index (R = 0.4, p = 0.01).ConclusionsDeep learning-based OARs auto-segmentation for NPC and rectal cancer has a nonsignificant impact on most PTV and OARs dose-volume indices. Correlations between the auto-segmentation geometric metric and dosimetric difference were not observed for most OARs.