A nomogram to predict cadmium-induced renal tubular dysfunction
Cadmium-induced renal dysfunction varies between individuals. It would be valuable to figure out those susceptible individuals or predict the risk of cadmium induced renal dysfunction. In the present study, we used a nomogram model to identify high-risk of cadmium-induced renal tubular dysfunction. 342 subjects living in low and moderately cadmium polluted areas were included in this study. The daily cadmium intake from food (FCd) was estimated using food survey. The cadmium in blood (BCd) and
... in blood (BCd) and urine (UCd) were detected by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG) was chosen as indicator of renal dysfunction. Logistic regression was used to select the independent risk factors for renal dysfunction. Bootstrap self-sampling and calibration curves were performed to quantify our modeling strategy. Age, sex, BCd and TCd were used to construct the nomogam in total population; age, BCd and TCd were adopted in women; age and BCd were used in men. The internal validation showed the C-index was 0.76 (95% 47 confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.82) in total population, 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69-0.79) in men and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.72-0.84) in women. The area under the curve of the nomogram was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.71-0.83) in total population, 0.82(95% CI: 0.74-0.90) in women and 0.74(95% CI: 0.66-0.82) in men. Nomogram may be a rapid and simple risk assessment tool for predicting high-risk of renal tubular dysfunction in subjects exposed cadmium.