State-of-the-art of high power gyro-devices and free electron masers. Update 1996 [report]

M. Thumm
1997
Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. 140 GHz (110 GHz) gyrotrons with outputpower Pout = 0.54 MW (0.53 MW), pulse length 't' = 3.0 s (5.0 s) and efficiency 11 = 40% (32 %) are commercially available. Total efficiencies around 50 % have been achieved using single-stage depressed
more » ... depressed collectors. Diagnostic gyrotrons deliver Pout = 40 kW with 't' = 40 J.I.S at frequencies up to 650 GHz (' 11 :::_ 4 %). Recently, gyrotron oscillators have also been successfully used in materials processing. Such technological applications require gyrotrons with the following parameters: f:::_ 24 GHz, Pout = 10-50 kW, CW, 11 :=: 30 %. This paper gives an update of the experimental achievements related to the development of high power gyrotron oscillators for long pulse or CW operation and pulsed diagnostic gyrotrons. In addition, this work gives a short overview of the present development of coaxial cavity gyrotrons, gyrotrons for technological applications, relativistic gyrotrons, quasi-optical gyrotrons, cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), gyroklystrons, gyro-TWT amplifiers, gyrotwystron amplifiers, gyro-BWO's, gyropeniotrons, :ftee electron masers (FEMs) and of vacuum windows for such high-power mm-wave sources. The highest CW powers produced by gyrotron oscillators, gyroklystrons and FEMs are, respectively, 340 kW (28 GHz), 2.5 kW (92 GHz) and 20 W (10 GHz). STATUS DER ENTWICKLUNG VON HOCHLEISTUNGS-GYRO-RÖHREN UND FREI-ELEKTRONEN-MASERN STAND: ENDE 1996 Übersicht Gyrotronoszillatoren ( Gyromonotrons) werden vorwiegend als Hochleistungsmillimeterwellenquellen für die Elektron-Zyklotron-Resonanzheizung (ECRH) und Diagnostik von magnetisch eingeschlossenen Plasmen zur Erforschung der Energiegewinnung durch kontrollierte Kernfusion eingesetzt. 140 GHz (110 GHz) Gyrotrons mit einer Ausgangsleistung von Pout = 0.54 MW (0.53 MW) bei Pulslängen von 't' = 3.0 s (5.0 s) und Wirkungsgraden von 11 = 40% (32 %) sind kommerziell erhältlich. Durch den Einsatz von Kollektoren mit einstufiger Gegenspannung werden Gesamtwirkungsgrade um 50 % erreicht. Gyrotrons zur Plasmadiagnostik arbeiten bei Frequenzen bis zu 650 GHzbei Pout = 40 kW und 't' = 40 J.
doi:10.5445/ir/270041051 fatcat:2hdie25u7vbiljryy42il3ig4u