Legal responsibility as a means of enforcement of legality and discipline in police activity
Naukovyy Visnyk Dnipropetrovs kogo Derzhavnogo Universytety Vnutrishnikh Sprav
Yuriy Parshyn, Denys Yuriev, Oleksansr Neklesa. Shadow economic activity as a factor of instability of the state economic system. It is noted that one of the main factors of instability of the economic system of any state is shadow economy. It is characteristic of all countries, but in developed countries its weight in the economic system is insignificant. The focus is on the fact that with the presence of the shadow economy which exceeds half of the total GDP of the country this situation
... the existence of a serious threat to the state's economic security and its unstable state. Attention is drawn to the fact that the action of the shadow economy on the economic system of the national economy is ambiguous. It is endowed with both positive and negative manifestations. The shadow economy is considered as a complex socio and economic phenomenon that covers the entire system of socio and economic relations, where production, distribution, exchange and consumption of economic benefits avoid control by public administration, and which has two basic interrelated signs. The classification approaches to the groupings of elements of the shadow economy and their construction with the explanation for each element have been presented. The main characteristic features of the shadow economy according to the specified elements have been presented as well. The actual volumes of the shadow economy are significantly exceed those indicators that are providing by the State Statistical Service. It is shown which aspects lead to destabilization of the shadow economy, and their clarification has been provided. The dynamics of the shadow economy as a percentage of GDP have been presented. The weight component of the distribution of the shadow economy by the types of economic activity have been presented graphically. It is indicated that the largest weight has transport, warehouse, postal and courier activity. It is emphasized that in order to have the high accurate assessment of the level of the shadow economy, it is necessary to determine deterministic factors that affect the dynamics of the shadow economic activity. It is indicated that such task can be solved by using indirect indicators, including demand for existing cash, use of electric energy in the industry and others.