Analysis of gender differences in art education : rates of participation and academic achievement in international baccalaureate art and design education
The purpose of this study was to determine if gender differences existed in rates of participation and academic achievement in art education. Parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses were conducted on data representing the final art grades of 2,231 students from 59 countries, assessed by the International Baccalaureate Organization during the 1995/96 school year. Statistically significant results indicated that rates of academic achievement, rates of participation, and choices of
... and choices of syllabus were gender-oriented in this population. Boys, in comparison with girls, were found to be less likely to undertake art, to choose less academically oriented syllabuses and to be out-performed academically in art. It was concluded that boys displayed a lassitude towards art education that was consistent with a more generalized educational trend, currently the focus of neo-masculinist discussion. Implications of the findings of this study were discussed in reference to boys' level of visual literacy, the relevancy of art curriculum to boys' specific educational needs, the extent of a "feminine" stereotype of art, and factors within art education which impact on how boys determine "masculinity". Implementation of "relational" research was urged to investigate the impact of art education on boys' formation of concepts of masculinity, and the potential role of art education in neo-masculinist discussion currently exploring theories of multiple masculinities.