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Plant communities are shaped by bottom-up processes such as competition for nutrients and top-down processes such as herbivory. Although much theoretical work has studied how herbivores can mediate plant species coexistence, indirect effects caused by the carnivores that consume herbivores have been largely ignored. These carnivores can have significant indirect effects on plants by altering herbivore density (density-mediated effects) and behavior (trait-mediated effects). Carnivores thatdoi:10.1086/657436 pmid:21091211 fatcat:qndbl7c37behxccgz4s2fhasje