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Ultrasonic wave carries the information for flowing velocity when it is propagating in flowing fluids. Flowrate can be obtained by measuring the propagation time of ultrasonic wave. The principle of transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters used today was based on that the velocity is uniform along the propagation path of the ultrasonic wave. However, it is well known that the velocity profiles in a pipe are not uniform both in laminar flow and turbulent flow. Emphasis on the effects of velocitydoi:10.3390/app9081648 fatcat:wtcuiiwbgfhwpa3y7ivtabhy4i