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In insect-pollinated crops, gene flow is affected by numerous factors including crop characteristics, mating system, life history, pollinators, and planting management practices. Previous studies have concentrated on the impact of distance between genetically engineered (GE) and conventional fields on adventitious presence (AP) which represents the unwanted presence of a GE gene. Variables other than distance, however, may affect AP. In addition, some AP is often present in the parent seed lotsdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248746 pmid:33765070 fatcat:ysp7wrj7irhn7cocbv46grp3je