Integration Reinforcement of Renewable Energy Resources and PHEVs through Hybrid AC-DC Local Network

Payam Baboli, Salah Bahramara, Mohsen Moghaddam, Mahmoud Haghifam
The share of DC-based Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) and electricity storage systems are increasing due to developments of smart grid technologies. Moreover, the share of DC-based load has rapid growth due to significant developments of power electronic technologies. Therefore, a more flexible power system is required for efficient integration of emerging loads and generators. In this paper, hybrid AC-DC Local Network (LN) is incorporated as an appropriate topology versus conventional AC LN
more » ... o reinforce the integration of RERs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). A mixed integer linear model is developed for operation of both hybrid AC-DC LN and conventional AC LN topologies considering high penetration of RERs and PHEVs. This operation model is solved by GAMS optimization software to minimize the operation cost and find the optimum inter-resource scheduling in the day-ahead market. Moreover, investment analysis and reliability assessment are carried out for the mentioned LNs. Numerical study is conducted to evaluate the ability of both topologies for better utilizing the opportunities of integration. Keywords: Conventional AC local network, energy efficiency, hybrid AC-DC local network, renewable energy resource, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Nomenclature Indices: c index of load point i index of contingency k index of PHEVs' discharging steps 1. PhD student, Email: 2. PhD student, Email: 3. Professor, corresponding author,, 4. Professor, Email: m index of year n index of PHEVs' number t index of hour Parameters: A annualized cost ACITi average customer interruption frequency at load point i CO&M operation and maintenance cost of DG (USD) fraci,k fraction of the load which is lost at load point i, for contingency c HR heat rate (kWh/m 3) iR annual real interest rate (%) LoadAC(t) AC load at t (kW) LoadDC(t) DC load at t (kW) LoadTotal(t) total load at t (kW) LPENSi energy not supplied of the load point i P present value PRfuel fuel price (USD) PRsell electricity selling price to grid ($/kWh) PRTOU(t) time-of-use rates at t ($/kWh) PPV(t) generation of PV panel at t (kW) PWT(t) generation of wind turbine at t (kW) Pdi weighted average amount of power disconnected Prc probability of occurrence of contingency c Psi weighted average amount of power shed at load point i Pconv rated power of converter (kW) PEV n charge,max maximum charging power of n-th PHEV's battery (kW) PEV n dcharge,max maximum discharging power of n-th PHEV's battery (kW) PDG,max maximum capacity of DG (kW) PGmax maximum transmitted power through grid (kW) RR ramp rate (kW/h) SOC n min minimum state-of-charge of n-th PHEV's battery SOC n (t n arr) state-of-charge of n-th PHEV's battery at arriving time SOC n (t n dep)