Sodium Gluconate and Potassium Gluconate as Substitutes for Sodium Chloride in Breadmaking
Food science and technology research
Sodium gluconate (Na-gluconate) and potassium gluconate (K-gluconate) were used as NaCl substitutes in breadmaking to determine their potential usefulness in preparing reduced-sodium bread and non-sodium bread. Replacement of 75% of the NaCl by Na-gluconate and of 50% by K-gluconate had no effect on rheological properties of dough as measured by Brabender Extensograph. Replacement of 100% of the NaCl by either Na-gluconate or K-gluconate resulted in decreased resistance to extension, but the
... tension, but the decreased resistance to extension had no effect on dough handling properties. Expansion of white bread dough (5% sugar, flour weight basis) increased with the proportion of NaCl replaced by Na-gluconate or K-gluconate. The patterns of carbon dioxide production during fermentation of non-sugar bread dough showed that as the proportion of Na-gluconate or K-gluconate increased, the time required to complete fermentation decreased, and the fermentation pattern showed a gradual resemblance to that seen in nonsugar bread dough without NaCl. In white bread, complete replacement of NaCl (2%, flour weight basis) by Na-gluconate or K-gluconate did not cause a difference in loaf volume, nor did it have any significant effect on overall desirability. Shelf life of white bread was not affected by substitution of Na-gluconate or K-gluconate for NaCl. Based on these results, it is possible to make reduced-sodium bread using Na-gluconate, and non-sodium bread using K-gluconate, incorporating each gluconic acid salt in an amount equal to 1.8% of flour weight in white bread.