Control of glycogen synthase by insulin and isoproterenol in rat adipocytes. Changes in the distribution of phosphate in the synthase subunit in response to insulin and beta-adrenergic receptor activation
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rat adipocytes were incubated with [32P]phosphate to label glycogen synthase, which was rapidly immunoprecipitated from cellular extracts and cleaved using either CNBr or trypsin. All of the [32P]phosphate in synthase was recovered in two CNBr fragments, denoted CB-1 and CB-2. Isoproterenol (1 microM) rapidly decreased the synthase activity ratio (-glucose-6-P/+glucose-6-P) and stimulated the phosphorylation of both CB-1 and CB-2 by approximately 30%. Insulin opposed the decrease in activity
... ease in activity ratio and blocked the stimulation of phosphorylation by isoproterenol. Incubating cells with insulin alone changed the 32P content of neither CB-1 nor CB-2. Trypsin fragments were separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and divided into peak fractions, denoted F-I-F-VII in order of increasing hydrophobicity. F-V contained almost half of the [32P]phosphate and was phosphorylated when synthase was immunoprecipitated from unlabeled fat cells and incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and the cAMP-independent protein kinase, FA/GSK-3. That F-V also had the same retention time as the skeletal muscle synthase fragment containing sites 3(a + b + c) suggests that it contains sites 3. Muscle sites 1a, 5, 1b, and 2 eluted with F-I, F-II, F-VI, and F-VII, respectively. F-V was increased approximately 25% by isoproterenol, but the largest relative increases were observed in F-I (4-fold), F-III (4-fold), and F-VI (2-fold). These results indicate that beta-adrenergic receptor activation results in increased phosphorylation of multiple sites on glycogen synthase. Insulin plus glucose decreased the overall 32P content of synthase by approximately 30%, with the largest decrease (40%) occurring in F-V. Without glucose, insulin decreased the [32P]phosphate in F-V by 17%, an effect which was balanced by increases in F-I, F-II, and F-III so that no net change in the total 32P contents of the fractions was observed. Thus, activation of glycogen synthase by the glucose transport-independent pathway seems to involve a redistribution of phosphate in the synthase subunit.