Severe chronic kidney disease environment reduced calcium-sensing receptor expression in parathyroid glands of adenine-induced rats even without high phosphorus diet
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) disrupts mineral homeostasis and its main underlying cause is secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We previously reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) mRNA and protein expression in parathyroid glands (PTGs) significantly decreased in a CKD rat model induced by a 5/6 nephrectomy that were fed a high phosphorus diet. However, there was a significant difference in the severity of CKD between high phosphorus and adequate phosphorus diet groups. Thus, it was
... ps. Thus, it was unclear whether CKD environment or the high phosphorus diet influenced CaSR expression, and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. CKD was induced in rats with 0.75% adenine-containing diet. CKD and control rats were maintained for 5 days and 2 weeks on diets with 0.7% or 1.3% phosphorus. For gene expression analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed with TaqMan probes. Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. PTG CaSR expression significantly decreased in the presence of a severe CKD environment, even without the high phosphate load. Ki67 expressing cells in PTGs were significantly higher only in the CKD rats fed a high phosphorus diet. Furthermore, among the many genes that could affect CaSR expression, only vitamin D receptor (VDR) and glial cells missing 2 (Gcm2) showed significant changes. Moreover, Gcm2 was significantly reduced at an early stage without significant changes in serum calcium, phosphorus and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, and there was no significant reduction in CaSR and VDR expressions. Then, significantly elevated Ki67-positive cell numbers were also only observed in the early CKD PTGs with high-phosphorus diets. Our data suggest that the cause of the decreased PTG CaSR expression is the reduction in VDR and Gcm2 expression; Gcm2 may play a role in the onset and progression of SHPT.