Burden, prevention and control of tobacco consumption in Nepal: a narrative review of existing evidence
Tobacco consumption is one of the major public health problems in the world. Annually, 27 100 premature deaths are attributed to tobacco-related diseases in Nepal. Despite enacting different policies and strategies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption is still high. This study aims to synthesize prevalence, factors associated with its consumption and the policy initiatives for prevention and control in Nepal. This review includes peer-reviewed studies retrieved from two databases (PubMed and
... abases (PubMed and EMBASE) and published from 2000 to 2018, and policy initiatives on tobacco prevention and regulations in Nepal. A total of 32 studies and 5 policy documents were reviewed. Findings suggest that tobacco consumption was higher among men, illiterates, older people, people living in rural and mountainous areas and those who initiated smoking as adolescents. Peer pressure and parental/family smoking were major contributing factors for tobacco initiation. Policy analysis showed that low excise tax, weak monitoring mechanisms, poor compliance to bans on the advertisement and promotion of tobacco, smoke-free zones and insufficient programs on tobacco cessation were the major factors behind weak implementation of tobacco-control policies. Hence, targeted and high-risk group tobacco-cessation interventions, increasing taxation and strict policy implementation are crucial for effective tobacco prevention and control in Nepal.