'Esse' versus 'este' no português brasileiro e no europeu
The aim of the following project is to contribute to the discussion regarding the changes through which the Brazilian Portuguese demonstrative system goes, comparing two types of Portuguese language, the Brazilian and the European. We will concentrate our attention on the opposition between "este" e "esse." Furthermore, we will not limit ourselves to the way of speaking and will focus on studying the occurrence of such demonstratives in several corpora that represent three different discourse
... pes: fictional and journalistic writing, and also the way of speaking. Each corpus was treated according to the characterization proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1997) , separating both references, endophoric and exophoric. The research selected from the three levels (syntactic, semantic and discursive), variables that would have impact on the usage of "este" e "esse." The results show that Brazilians only use "este" significantly in the genders characterized by the existence of grammatical review. However, the Portuguese people maintain the ternary system which is still rooted in the spatial issue/ interlocution field in speaking as well as in writing. Texts in which manual's rules are emphasized have enough room for both nationalities to choose between the two options: the Portuguese people choose "este" while the Brazilians prefer " esse." This research disputes Marine´s (2004) view that the Brazilian oral system shows a specialization according to the kind of reference. Our data has shown that within the Brazilian speech "este" appears just residually and is bound to be replaced with "esse". The Brazilian binary configuration is different from the one used in English. The results show that the words "this" and "esse" are not exactly synonyms. The usage of the Brazilian demonstrative appears in contexts where in English only "that" could be used. The research reached another important conclusion. It suggests the existence of a relationship between the referential hierarchy and the choice of demonstrative. In most corpora we found an association between a higher usage percentage of "este" and the reference to elements characterized by a larger load of references.