Toxicity Bioassay and Cytotoxic Effects of the Benthic Marine Dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum
Journal of Xenobiotics
Benthic dinoflagellates produce a wide array of bioactive compounds, primarily polyketides, that cause toxic effects on human consumers of seafood and perhaps mediate species interactions in the benthic microenvironment. This study assesses toxic and other bioactive effects of the benthic dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum (strain AA60) in two targeted bioassays. The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay revealed lethal effects of direct exposure to live dinoflagellate cells (Treatment A)
... ells (Treatment A) and even higher potency with ethanolic extracts of lysed cells (Treatment D). There were no inimical bioactive effects of components released to the aqueous growth medium (Treatment B) or from aqueous cell lysates (Treatment C). The hypothesis that released bioactive compounds provide a chemical defense against metazoan grazers is therefore not supported by these results. The cytotoxic effect of ethanolic crude extracts of this dinoflagellate exhibited mild to high growth reduction effects on six human cancer cell lines. In particular, crude cell-free extracts proved highly growth-inhibitory activity towards breast and lung cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SKLU-1, respectively. Preliminary anti-cancer results indicate that natural bioactive compounds from Amphidinium are worthy of structural characterization and further toxicological investigation as potential therapeutants.