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Recognition of relatives is important in microbes because they perform many behaviors that have costs to the actor while benefiting neighbors. Microbes cooperate for nourishment, movement, virulence, iron acquisition, protection, quorum sensing, and production of multicellular biofilms or fruiting bodies. Helping others is evolutionarily favored if it benefits others who share genes for helping, as specified by kin selection theory. If microbes generally find themselves in clonal patches, thendoi:10.1146/annurev.micro.112408.134109 pmid:21682642 fatcat:kwbp2gw37jhpxmztdu3uimwhl4