Precision Medicine in Oncology: A Review of Multi-Tumor Actionable Molecular Targets with an Emphasis on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Matthew K. Stein, Oluchukwu Oluoha, Kruti Patel, Ari VanderWalde
2021 Journal of Personalized Medicine  
Precision medicine is essential for the modern care of a patient with cancer. Comprehensive molecular profiling of the tumor itself is necessary to determine the presence or absence of certain targetable abnormalities or biomarkers. In particular, lung cancer is a disease for which targetable genomic alterations will soon guide therapy in the majority of cases. In this comprehensive review of solid tumor-based biomarkers, we describe the genomic alterations for which targeted agents have been
more » ... proved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). While focusing on alterations leading to approvals in a tumor-agnostic fashion (MSI-h, TMB-h, NTRK) and on those alterations with approvals in multiple malignancies (BRAF, ERBB2, RET, BRCA, PD-L1), we also describe several biomarkers or indications that are likely to lead to an approved drug in the near future (e.g., KRAS G12C, PD-L1 amplification, HER2 overexpression in colon cancer, HER2 mutations in lung cancer). Finally, we detail the current landscape of additional actionable alterations (EGFR, ALK, ROS1, MET) in lung cancer, a biomarker-rich malignancy that has greatly benefitted from the precision oncology revolution.
doi:10.3390/jpm11060518 fatcat:hxo744j6andqdmwaistlulre7u