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Automatic pain assessment has an important potential diagnostic value for populations that are incapable of articulating their pain experiences. As one of the dominating nonverbal channels for eliciting pain expression events, facial expressions has been widely investigated for estimating the pain intensity of individual. However, using state-of-the-art deep learning (DL) models in real-world pain estimation applications poses several challenges related to the subjective variations of facialarXiv:1910.08173v2 fatcat:p7huseb36ve37nk4qpmbygnazq