Rechargeable Calcium–Sulfur Batteries Enabled by an Efficient Borate-Based Electrolyte [in press]

Z. Li, B. P. Vinayan, T. Diemant, R. J. Behm, M. Fichtner, Z. Zhao-Karger
Rechargeable metal–sulfur batteries show great promise for energy storage applications because of their potentially high energy and low cost. The multivalent‐metal based electrochemical system exhibits the particular advantage of the feasibility of dendrite‐free metal anode. Calcium (Ca) represents a promising anode material owing to the low reductive potential, high capacity, and abundant natural resources. However, calcium–sulfur (Ca–S) battery technology is in an early R&D stage, facing the
more » ... stage, facing the fundamental challenge to develop a suitable electrolyte enabling reversible electrochemical Ca deposition, and at the same time, sulfur redox reactions in the system. Herein, a study of a room‐temperature Ca–S battery by employing a stable and efficient calcium tetrakis(hexafluoroisopropyloxy) borate Ca[B(hfip)$_{4}$]$_{2}$ electrolyte is presented. The Ca–S batteries exhibit a cell voltage of ≈2.1 V (close to its thermodynamic value) and good reversibility. The mechanistic studies hint at a redox chemistry of sulfur with polysulfide/sulfide species involved in the Ca‐based system.
doi:10.5445/ir/1000123531 fatcat:a2rxfiix6zazhdekntuumjccki