Bovine Immune Response to Vaccination and Infection with Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Hardjo

Jennifer H. Wilson-Welder, David P. Alt, Jarlath E. Nally, Steven C. Olsen, David W. Pascual
2021 mSphere  
This study examined the humoral and cellular response of cattle vaccinated with two commercial leptospiral vaccines, Leptavoid and Spirovac, and a novel bacterin vaccine using Seppic Montanide oil emulsion adjuvant. Vaccination was followed by experimental challenge. All vaccinated cattle were protected from colonization of the kidney and shedding of Leptospira in urine, as detected by culture and immunofluorescence assay. Agglutinating antibody titers were detected in vaccinated cattle at 4
more » ... ated cattle at 4 weeks following vaccination, with small anamnestic response detected following experimental challenge. Only animals vaccinated with the oil emulsion-adjuvanted bacterin produced significant IgG2 titers following vaccination, and nonvaccinated animals produced serum IgA titers after experimental challenge. CD4+ and γδ T cells from vaccinated cattle proliferated when cultured with antigen ex vivo. Cellular responses included a marked proliferation of γδ T cells immediately following experimental challenge in vaccinated cattle and release of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin 17a (IL-17a), and IL-12p40 from stimulated cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were found not just in peripheral mononuclear cells but also in lymphocytes isolated from renal lymph nodes at 10 weeks following experimental challenge. Overall, effects of leptospirosis vaccination and infection were subtle, resulting in only modest activation of CD4+ and γδ T cells. The use of Seppic Montanide oil emulsion adjuvants may shorten the initiation of response to vaccination, which could be useful during outbreaks or in areas where leptospirosis is endemic. IMPORTANCE Leptospirosis is an underdiagnosed, underreported zoonotic disease of which domestic livestock can be carriers. As a reservoir host for Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, cattle may present with reproductive issues, including abortion, birth of weak or infected calves, or failure to breed. Despite years of study and the availability of commercial vaccines, detailed analysis of the bovine immune response to vaccination and Leptospira challenge is lacking. This study evaluated immunologic responses to two efficacious commercial vaccines and a novel bacterin vaccine using an adjuvant chosen for enhanced cellular immune responses. Antigen-specific responsive CD4 and γδ T cells were detected following vaccination and were associated with release of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17a after stimulation. CD4 and γδ cells increased in the first week after infection and, combined with serum antibody, may play a role in clearance of bacteria from the blood and resident tissues. Additionally, these antigen-reactive T cells were found in the regional lymph nodes following infection, indicating that memory responses may not be circulating but are still present in regional lymph nodes. The information gained in this study expands knowledge of bovine immune response to leptospirosis vaccines and infection. The use of oil emulsion adjuvants may enhance early immune responses to leptospiral bacterins, which could be useful in outbreaks or situations where leptospirosis is endemic.
doi:10.1128/msphere.00988-20 pmid:33762318 fatcat:hof35upsdfawll3bqv5ffimw5m