Gaze-Driven Design Insights to Amplify Debugging Skills: A Learner-Centred Analysis Approach
Journal of Learning Analytics
This study investigates how multimodal user-generated data can be used to reinforce learner reflection, improve teaching practices, and close the learning analytics loop. In particular, the aim of the study is to utilize user gaze and action-based data to examine the role of a mirroring tool (i.e., Exercise View in Eclipse) in orchestrating basic behavioural regulation during debugging. The results demonstrated that students who processed the information presented in the Exercise View and acted
... upon it, improved their performance and achieved a higher level of success than those who failed to do so. The findings shed light on what constitutes relevant data within a particular learning context in programming using gaze patterns. Moreover, these findings could guide the collection of essential learner-centred analytics for designing usable, modular learning environments based on data-driven approaches. Notes for Practice • Mirroring tools could regulate learner behaviour depending on the contextual set up of the programming environment. • This study demonstrated that students who improved their performance and achieved a higher level of debugging success have gaze patterns that corresponded with attention shifts with the mirroring tool and other areas of interest (AOIs). • Visual attention strategies among novices are not as well developed as they are among experts. This is shown in the successful and unsuccessful debugging behaviour patterns calculated from two-and three-way transition probabilities that we observed. • IDE-based (integrated development environment) learning analytics combined with gaze data could aid researchers and educators in designing and delivering interventions to enhance student progress by guiding them to attend to the right information at the right time so as to maximize student understanding of relevant concepts.