Characteristics of body balance disorder in children with unilateral lower limb shortening

Igor E. Nikityuk, Elizaveta L. Kononova, Yuriy E. Garkavenko
2019 Ortopediâ, Travmatologiâ i Vosstanovitelʹnaâ Hirurgiâ Detskogo Vozrasta  
Background. In modern orthopedics, the problem of unilateral shortening of the lower limbs in children is extremely important. In the process of child growth, there occurs progression of the shortened segment, which leads to anatomical asymmetry of the lower limbs and an increase in the imbalance of the limb load. Secondary deformities of the pelvis and spine aggravate the patient's disability. The features of abnormal postural balance of the body depending on the etiology of the disease, such
more » ... the disease, such as congenital or acquired, as well as the degree of preservation of motor stereotypes in children with unilateral shortening of the lower limbs, are still understudied. Aim. The aims of this work are to study postural stability in children with unilateral shortening of the lower limbs and to assess the disorders of body balance depending on the etiology of the lesion. Materials and methods. The standard stabilometric values of 11 healthy children (average age, 11.9 ± 0.73 years) were determined (group 1), as well as the statokinesiogram parameters in 22 patients with unilateral shortening of the lower limb. The second group included 11 children (average age, 11.9 ± 1.05 years) with congenital shortening of the lower limb (average shortening, 4.8 ± 0.8 cm). The third group also consisted of 11 children (average age, 12.2 ± 0.78 years), but with acquired shortening of the lower limb (average shortening, 4.5 ± 0.38 cm). Statistical research included correlation analysis. Results. A significant decrease in the stability of the vertical balance was observed in both groups of patients, which was demonstrated by pronounced deviations from the nominal values of stabilometric parameters, compared with healthy children: an increased center of pressure displacement, large values of the statokinesiogram area, and the length of the pressure displacement path. It was possible to determine the state of adaptive postural mechanisms for assessing the formation of the degree of adequacy of the motor strategy in patients with unilateral shortening of the lower limb, depending on the etiology of the lesion, owing to the method of stabilometry. Conclusion. An appropriate adaptive motor stereotype has been formed in patients with acquired shortening of the lower limb; in the new conditions, the system for ensuring postural balance is stabilized. There is a different strategy for maintaining posture stability characterized by a nonoptimal motor stereotype in patients with congenital shortening of the lower limb. The stabilometric assessment of the asymmetry of the lower limb load is a promising method for studying the formation of compensatory mechanisms for controlling the locomotion system, which is important when planning rehabilitation measures.
doi:10.17816/ptors7345-54 fatcat:qmxnbl56tndsfktdmgocmn7mv4