Prevalence of Transfusion-Transmissible Infections in Donors to an Ethiopian Blood Bank Between 2009 and 2013 and Donation Factors That Would Improve the Safety of the Blood Supply in Underdeveloped Countries

Misganaw Birhaneselassie
2016 Laboratory medicine  
Objective: To determine the percentages of blood donors at an Ethiopian blood bank who tested positive for 4 transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) and to compare TTI infection levels among individuals of different sociodemographic characteristics. Method: We reviewed 5 years of data (2009 to 2013) from registration records of blood donors at the blood bank of Yirgalem Hospital in Hawassa, Ethiopia. Result: Of the 6337 donors, 447 (7.0%) tested positive for 1 of the TTIs for which
more » ... for which infection necessitates discarding the infected blood unit. The prevalence of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), HBV (hepatitis B virus), HCV (hepatitis C virus), and syphilis were 1.6%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV was significantly increased among donors who were replacing blood for family members compared with volunteer donors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.34; 95% CI, .15 to .77), and employed donors compared with students (2.48; 1.22 to 5.02). HCV prevalence was significantly increased with replacement donors compared with volunteers. The prevalence of the 4 studied TTIs in volunteers' donations are lower than that in family replacement donation. The discard rate of blood from volunteers was 1.1%, versus 5.9% from replacement donors. Conclusion: The prevalence of TTIs is significant, and blood collected from volunteer donors is associated with lower risk of TTIs. Therefore, agencies must ensure a safe, adequate blood supply, designating unremunerated volunteers as a preferred donor group. Moreover, more sensitive and specific screening methods and a regular supply of materials and reagents must be provided to improve the quality standard of blood-bank laboratories.
doi:10.1093/labmed/lmw003 pmid:27069031 fatcat:ldgmkx7wvrbuxaj6n2ctvyxnni