Online availability upgrades for parity-based RAIDs through supplementary parity augmentations

Lei Tian, Qiang Cao, Hong Jiang, Dan Feng, Changsheng Xie, Qin Xin
2011 ACM Transactions on Storage  
In this paper, we propose a simple but powerful on-line availability upgrade mechanism, Supplementary Parity Augmentations (SPA), to address the availability issue for parity-based RAID systems. The basic idea of SPA is to store and update the supplementary parity units on one or a few newly augmented spare disks for on-line RAID systems in the operational mode, thus achieving the goals of improving the reconstruction performance while tolerating multiple disk failures and latent sector errors
more » ... imultaneously. By applying the exclusive OR operations appropriately among supplementary parity, full parity and data units, SPA can reconstruct the data on the failed disks with a fraction of the original overhead that is proportional to the supplementary parity coverage, thus significantly reducing the overhead of data regeneration and decreasing recovery time in parity-based RAID systems. In particular, SPA has two supplementary-parity coverage orientations, SPA Vertical and SPA Diagonal, which cater to user's different availability needs. The former, which calculates the supplementary parity of a fixed subset of the disks, can tolerate more disk failures and sector errors; whereas, the latter shifts the coverage of supplementary parity by one disk for each stripe to balance the workload and thus maximize the performance of reconstruction during recovery. The SPA with a single supplementary-parity disk can be viewed as a variant of but significantly different from the RAID5+0 architecture in that the former can easily and dynamically upgrade a RAID5 system to a RAID5+0like system without any change to the data layout of the RAID5 system. Our extensive trace-driven simulation study shows that both SPA orientations can significantly improve the reconstruction performance of the RAID5 system while SPA Diagonal significantly improves the reconstruction performance of RAID5+0, at an acceptable performance overhead imposed in the operational mode. Moreover, our reliability analytical modeling and Sequential Monte-Carlo simulation demonstrate that both SPA orientations consistently more than double the MTTDL of the RAID5 system and improve the reliability of the RAID5+0 system noticeably.
doi:10.1145/1970338.1970341 fatcat:4kemju36d5hurlgqa4jyi7ps24