Evaluation of Metallic and Polymeric Biomaterial Surface Energy and Surface Roughness Characteristics for Directed Cell Adhesion
Directed cell adhesion remains an important goal of implant and tissue engineering technology. In this study, surface energy and surface roughness were investigated to ascertain which of these properties show more overall influence on biomaterial-cell adhesion and colonization. Jet impingement was used to quantify cellular adhesion strength. Cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion were used to characterize colonization of 3T3MC fibroblasts on: HS25 (a cobalt based implant
... , ASTM F75), 316L stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V (a titanium implant alloy), commercially pure tantalum (Ta), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicone rubber (SR), and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The metals exhibited a nearly five-fold greater adhesion strength than the polymeric materials tested. Generally, surface energy was proportional to cellular adhesion strength. Only polymeric materials demonstrated significant increased adhesion strength associated with increased surface roughness. Cellular adhesion on metals demonstrated a linear correlation with surface energy. Less than half as much cellular proliferation was detected on polymeric materials compared to the metals. However the polymers tested demonstrated greater than twice the amount of secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on a per cell basis than the metallic materials. Thus, surface energy may be a more important determinant of cell adhesion and proliferation, and may be more useful than surface roughness for directing cell adhesion and cell colonization onto engineered tissue scaffoldings.