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This descriptive article aims to discuss the development of Finnish PhD education in science and mathematics education research over the past 20 years. First, the general aims and structure of PhD education at the national level are introduced. Doctoral studies seek to develop research knowledge and skills as well as the capability to produce novel scientific knowledge. Second, the development of PhD education in the Finnish context of science and mathematics education research is discussed.doi:10.5617/nordina.828 fatcat:iyft57n5nba2vbma6qpkebtimm