Cross-Coupling Hydrogen Evolution Reactions

Kui Dong, Qiang Liu, Li-Zhu Wu
2020 Huaxue xuebao  
During the past decade, transition metal-catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-couplings have emerged as an attractive strategy in synthetic chemistry due to its high step-and atom-economy as well as the less functionalized coupling partners. However, such reactions have to always use stoichiometric amount of sacrificial oxidants such as peroxides, high-valent metals (Cu salts, Ag salts, etc.), or iodine(III) oxidants, thereby leading to possible generation of toxic wastes and making the process less
more » ... desirable from a green chemistry perspective. The recently developed photocatalytic CCHE (cross-coupling hydrogen-evolution) reactions are a conceptually new type of reactions enabled by combination of photo-redox catalysis and proton reduction catalysis, wherein the photocatalyst uses light energy as the driving force for the cross-coupling and the hydrogen evolution catalyst may capture electrons and protons from the substrates or reaction intermediates to produce molecular hydrogen (H 2 ). Thus, without use of any sacrificial oxidant and under mild conditions, the dual catalyst system may afford cross-coupling products with excellent yields and an equivalent amount of H 2 as the sole byproduct. This kind of cross-coupling delivers a greener synthetic strategy and is particularly useful for reactions that involve species sensitive to traditional oxidants. In CCHE reactions, the raw materials are directly converted into products and hydrogen, the reactions are highly atom economy, environmentally friendly, and have attractive potential industrial application prospects. In this review, recent dramatic developments of photocatalytic and electrochemical CCHE reactions are discussed via the most prominent mechanistic pathways, the types of C-C bond, C-X (heteroatom) bond, or X-X bond formations and specific reaction classes.
doi:10.6023/a19110412 fatcat:nkbopzynund2pgxwkmwcckhcv4