Immune Cell Induced Migration of Osteoprogenitor Cells Is Mediated by TGF-β Dependent Upregulation of NOX4 and Activation of Focal Adhesion Kinase
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
The cytokines secreted by immune cells have a large impact on the tissue, surrounding a fracture, e.g., by attraction of osteoprogenitor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Thus, this study aims at investigating molecular mechanisms of the immune cell-mediated migration of immature primary human osteoblasts (phOBs), with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4) and focal adhesion kinase
... dhesion kinase (FAK) as possible regulators. Monocyte- and macrophage (THP-1 cells ± phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment)-conditioned media, other than the granulocyte-conditioned medium (HL-60 cells + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment), induce migration of phOBs. Monocyte- and macrophage (THP-1 cells)-conditioned media activate Smad3-dependent TGF-β signaling in the phOBs. Stimulation with TGF-β promotes migration of phOBs. Furthermore, TGF-β treatment strongly induces NOX4 expression on both mRNA and protein levels. The associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation results in phosphorylation (Y397) of FAK. Blocking TGF-β signaling, NOX4 activity and FAK signaling effectively inhibits the migration of phOBs towards TGF-β. In summary, our data suggest that monocytic- and macrophage-like cells induce migration of phOBs in a TGF-β-dependent manner, with TGF-β-dependent induction of NOX4, associated production of ROS and resulting activation of FAK as key mediators.