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This paper argues that while the GDPR has arguably delivered positive outcomes by enhancing the protection afforded to data subjects, it has also had adverse effects on competition by strengthening the position of large online platforms in certain markets. In addition, the GDPR has given large platforms a tool to harm rivals by restricting access to the data they need to compete effectively. The present paper focuses on digital advertising and the ad tech industry, where the GDPR appears todoi:10.1080/17441056.2020.1848059 fatcat:m6omgqcqyjcnndkh2m5qipi3jm