Computer-assisted subcapital correction osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis using individualized drill templates

Sima Zakani, Christopher Chapman, Adam Saule, Anthony Cooper, Kishore Mulpuri, David R. Wilson
2021 3D Printing in Medicine  
Background Subcapital osteotomy by means of surgical hip dislocation is a treatment approach offered for moderate-to-severe cases of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE). This procedure is demanding, highly dependent on the surgeon's experience, and requires considerable radiation exposure for monitoring and securing the spatial alignment of the femoral head. We propose the use of individualized drill guides as an accurate method for placing K-wires during subcapital correction osteotomies
more » ... n SCFE patients. Methods Five CT scans of the hip joint from otherwise healthy patients with moderate-to-severe SCFE were selected (ages 11–14). Three dimensional models of each patient's femur were reconstructed by manual segmentation and physically replicated using additive manufacturing techniques. Five orthopaedic surgeons virtually identified the optimal entry point and direction of the two threaded wires for each case. 3D printed drill guides were designed specific to each surgical plan, with one side shaped to fit the patient's bone and the other side containing holes to guide the surgical drill. Each surgeon performed three guided (using the drill guides) and three conventional (freehand) simulated procedures on each case. Each femur model was laser scanned and digitally matched to the preoperative model for evaluation of entry points and wire angulations. We compared wire entry point, wire angulation, procedure time and number of x-rays between guided and freehand simulated surgeries. Results The guided group (1.4 ± 0.9 mm; 2.5° ± 1.4°) was significantly more accurate than the freehand group (5.8 ± 3.2 mm; 5.3° ± 4.4°) for wire entry location and angulation (p < 0.001). Guided surgeries required significantly less drilling time and intraoperative x-rays (90.5 ± 42.2 s, 3 ± 1 scans) compared to the conventional surgeries (246.8 ± 122.1 s, 14 ± 5 scans) (p < 0.001). Conclusions We conclude that CT-based preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation using individualized drill guides allow for improved accuracy of wires, reduced operative time and less radiation exposure in simulated hips. Clinical relevance This preliminary study shows promising results, suggesting potential direct benefits to SCFE patients by necessitating less time under anesthesia and less intra-operative radiation exposure to patients, and increasing surgical accuracy.
doi:10.1186/s41205-021-00108-6 pmid:34228206 fatcat:ai7gun42dnb37ok2f5qztzh7pm