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Objective. We sought to investigate the role of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization after successful antibiotic treatment (Rx) of acute otitis media (AOM) in recurrent AOM (RAOM). Patients and methods. NP cultures were obtained from 494 (93%) of 530 patients at the end of antibiotic treatment (EOT). Results. At enrollment, middle ear fluid (MEF) cultures in 418 (79%) of 530 patients were positive for pathogens. At EOT, NP cultures in 208 (42%) of 494 patients weredoi:10.1086/429918 pmid:15871120 fatcat:kwagghrhybckxoaze72xvhsrby