The extracellular functions of S100A12
The S100s comprise a group of Ca2+-binding proteins of the EF-hand superfamily with varied functions. Within this family, three inflammatory-related proteins - S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 - form a subcluster known as the 'calgranulins'. S100A12 levels are elevated in sera from patients with inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. S100A12 is constitutively expressed in neutrophils and induced in monocytes by LPS and TNFα, and in macrophages by IL-6.
... A12 is a potent monocyte and mast cell chemoattractant and its potentiation of mast cell activation by IgE cross-linking indicates an important role in allergic inflammation. Importantly, mast cell-dependent activation of acute inflammatory responses and monocyte recruitment is provoked by S100A12 administration in vivo. S100A12 may also influence adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells, stimulate IL 1β and TNFinduced in monocytes production in BV 2 microglial cells, and stimulate IL 2 secretion by T lymphocytes via ligation of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). To date, the only extracellular receptor characterised for S100A12 is RAGE, although additional/alternate receptors are indicated. In particular, recent studies indicate that chemotaxis and mast cell activation by S100A12 are likely mediated by other receptors. The studies presented here investigated some extracellular functions of S100A12, factors influencing these functions and suggest mechanisms that may be involved. In addition to Ca2+, S100A12 binds Zn2+. Chapter 3 explores the relevance Zn2+ binding to S100A12 structure and function. Zn2+ induced formation of complexes, principally hexamers, and this was not influenced by Ca2+. S100A12 inhibited the gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and 9 by chelating Zn2+ from their active sites. MMPs are important in processes leading to plaque rupture. An antibody that specifically recognised Zn2+-induced complexes was generated and immunohistochemical studies demo [...]