Study of population-genomic structure of Vyatka horses in interline aspect
Agrarian Bulletin of the
Abstract. The population-genomic structure of the Vyatka horses was studied in the context of 10 male genealogical lines bred in the breed. Purpose. Evaluation of the genetic and breeding potential of the Vyatka breed, as well as the influence of factory breeds. Methods. Isolation of DNA from the hair follicles of Vyatka horses (n = 38) was performed using "ExtraGene DNA Prep 2000" by allele-specific PCR. Statistical calculations of allele frequencies and the types of studied loci were
... using MS Excel 10 software. Results. The polymorphism of MSTN, GYS1, DMTR3, CAST, and PRLR genes in Vyatka breed lines was studied for the first time. According to the frequency of occurrence CAST G/A (0.472) and PRLR G/C (0.417), as well as the genotype MSTN T/T (0.579) is somewhat dominated by the heterozygous genotypes characteristic of local breeds. They revealed polysaccharide accumulation mutation PSSM1 (0.189), characteristic of draft horses, and the DMRT3 mutation (0.087), which determines the ability for a non-standard gait - amble, noted among Oryol trotters, which indicates the presence of draft and trotting blood in the lines carrying these alleles. MSTN/C and DMRT3/A alleles, which are not typical for aborigines, are noted in Znatok line, whose representatives are distinguished by a lightweight body type and productive movements. The carriers of the mutant defective GYS1 allele (PSSM1) were identified in five lines: Bob, Gabizon, Buran, Dobrik, and Malakhit. Genotyping of all used stallions for genes associated with economically useful traits will allow more efficient selection in the Vyatka breed and prevent the spread of unwanted alleles, which is especially important for small breeds. Scientific novelty. For the first time, an intrapopulation genomic analysis of the domestic horse breed was studied in the interline aspect, and the influence of factory breeds on certain genealogical lines was shown. The polymorphism of the calpastatin (CAST) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) genes has not previously been studied in horse breeding.