Combustion Products of 1,3-Butadiene Are Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

W. James Catallo, Christopher H. Kennedy, William Henk, Steven A. Barker, Stephen C. Grace, Arthur Penn
2001 Environmental Health Perspectives  
Articles Adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, especially small respirable particles and their associated adsorbed chemicals, are of growing concern to health professionals, governmental agencies, and the general public. Areas rich in petrochemical processing facilities (e.g., eastern Texas and southern California) chronically have poor air quality. Atmospheric releases of products of incomplete combustion (e.g., soot) from these facilities are not subject to rigorous regulatory
more » ... regulatory enforcement. Although soot can include respirable particles and carcinogens, the toxicologic and epidemiologic consequences of exposure to environmentally relevant complex soots have not been well investigated. Here we continue our physico-chemical analysis of butadiene soot and report effects of exposure to this soot on putative targets, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We examined organic extracts of butadiene soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), probe distillation MS, and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. Hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular mass as high as 1,000 atomic mass units were detected, including known and suspected human carcinogens (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). Butadiene soot particles also had strong, solid-state free-radical character in electron spin resonance analysis. Spin-trapping studies indicated that fresh butadiene soot in a buffered aqueous solution containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) oxidized the DMSO, leading to CH 3 • radical formation. Butadiene soot DMSO extract (BSDE)-exposed NHBE cells displayed extranuclear fluorescence within 4 hr of exposure. BSDE was cytotoxic to > 20% of the cells at 72 hr. Morphologic alterations, including cell swelling and membrane blebbing, were apparent within 24 hr of exposure. These alterations are characteristic of oncosis, an ischemia-induced form of cell death. BSDE treatment also produced significant genotoxicity, as indicated by binucleated cell formation. The combination of moderate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, as occurred here, can be pro-carcinogenic. Key words: blebbing, BSDE, butadiene soot, fluorescence, free radicals, human bronchial epithelial cells, PAHs. Environ Health Perspect 109:965-971 (2001). [Online 12 September 2001]
doi:10.2307/3455000 fatcat:gxo6n4eymjeljiyezhocwaqggu