Adherence of iron and folic acid supplementation and determinants among pregnant women in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Iron and folic acid deficiency anaemia are one of the global public health challenges that pose 1.45% of all disability-adjusted life-years. It is recognized as a cause for an unacceptably high proportion of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation during the antenatal period is paramount to reduce anaemia and its associated morbidities. Although several studies have been conducted across the country, their reports were inconsistent and
... onclusive for intervention. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to estimate the pooled national level adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation and its determinants among pregnant women in Ethiopia. This systematic review and meta-analysis were pursued the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 guideline. An extensive search of databases including, PubMed, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online were conducted to access articles. The Newcastle- Ottawa quality assessment tool was used to assess the quality of each study and meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. I2 test and Egger's test were used to assess the heterogeneity and publication bias respectively. The meta-analysis of estimating national level adherence were done using STATA version 11 with 95% CI. Twenty studies with a total of 16,818 pregnant women were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled national level iron and folic acid supplementation's adherence were 46.15% (95%CI:34.75,57.55). The highest adherence was observed in Addis Abeba, 60% (95%CI: 55.93, 64.07) followed by Tigray, 58.9% (95% CI: 33.86, 84.03). Women who received supplemental information [OR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.05, 5.24], who had good knowledge [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.05, 5.24], began the ANC visit before 16 weeks [OR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.76, 3.29], and had ≥4 ANC visits [OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.15] were more likely adhere to the supplementation. Fear of side effects (46.4, 95% CI: 30.9 61.8) and forgetfulness (30.7, 95% CI: 17.6, 43.8) were the major barriers of adherence of the supplementations. More than four of nine pregnant women have adhered to the iron and folic acid supplementation. This meta-analysis revealed that receiving supplemental counselling, knowledge of the supplement; early registration and frequent ANC visit were significantly associated with the adherence of the iron and folic acid supplementation. Therefore, provision of strengthened supplemental counselling service, antenatal care services, and improving the knowledge of the supplementation is a crucial strategy to increase the adherence among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Besides, addressing the barriers of the adherence of the supplement mainly counseling or managing of side effects and reducing of forgetfulness to take the tablet through getting family support or male involvement during visit is mandatory.