Screening of cardiovascular risk assessment accuracy of anthropometric indices in Indian children and adolescents
Wellcome Open Research
Body mass index (BMI) is the most popular anthropometric marker to define obesity and cardiometabolic risk. BMI is limited in its ability to discriminate central adiposity and other indices such as waist circumference (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) could be a better choice. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relative accuracy of these indices for the prediction of hypertension in Indian children and young adults. Methods: Anthropometric indices and blood pressure measurements were
... measurements were obtained in 2609 adolescent children and young adults (10-20 years) across a national residential school system. Z-scores were calculated for anthropometric parameters using the Box-Cox-Cole-Green method and World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. Hypertension was defined using the sex, age and height specific cutoffs for systolic blood pressure. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis was performed to examine the predictive ability. Results: Girls had higher BMI for age in our dataset (p < 0.001), along with higher odds for stunting (95% CI: 1.21 – 1.88) as well as central obesity (95% CI: 2.44 – 3.99). Hypertension was seen in 10.6% of the subjects, with higher age, and higher BMI or WHtR as the predictors. Prehypertension was higher in males (p <0.001). WHtR had acceptable but modest discrimination ability for hypertension (AUC > 0.6) in boys (AUC=0.62) and girls (AUC=0.66). Performance of BMI was better in boys (AUC = 0.67) but poor in girls (AUC = 0.55) Conclusion: WHtR was a better predictor of hypertension in Indian adolescent girls and could be used as an augmented parameter to BMI for a better assessment of cardiovascular risk.