Learning Deep Binary Descriptor with Multi-Quantization
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
In this paper, we propose an unsupervised feature learning method called deep binary descriptor with multi-quantization (DBD-MQ) for visual analysis. Existing learning-based binary descriptors such as compact binary face descriptor (CBFD) and DeepBit utilize the rigid sign function for binarization despite of data distributions, which usually suffer from severe quantization loss. In order to address the limitation, we propose a deep multi-quantization network to learn a data-dependent
... on in an unsupervised manner. More specifically, we design a K-Autoencoders (KAEs) network to jointly learn the parameters of feature extractor and the binarization functions under a deep learning framework, so that discriminative binary descriptors can be obtained with a fine-grained multi-quantization. As DBD-MQ simply allocates the same number of quantizers to each real-valued feature dimension ignoring the elementwise diversity of informativeness, we further propose a deep competitive binary descriptor with multi-quantization (DCBD-MQ) method to learn optimal allocation of bits with the fixed binary length in a competitive manner, where informative dimensions gain more bits for complete representation. Moreover, we present a similarity-aware binary encoding strategy based on the earth mover's distance of Autoencoders, so that elements that are quantized into similar Autoencoders will have smaller Hamming distances. Extensive experimental results on six widely-used datasets show that our DBD-MQ and DCBD-MQ outperform most state-of-the-art unsupervised binary descriptors.