Background and expertise of "jiritsu-katsudo" teachers in Hokkaido : changes in the "Ryouiku" and education of physically disabled children in Hokkaido
北海道の自立活動教諭の導入の背景とその専門性 : 北海道の肢体不自由児の療育と教育の変遷から

Akiko Furukawa
The Hokkaido board of education has been assigning "jiritu-katudou" teachers (Teachers in Charge of Activities to Promote Independence) as "internal expert" of schools since 1997. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology began to treat physical therapists as "external experts" from 2008 onwards. This article explains the guidance of "jiritu-katudou" in the newly revised Special Needs School Education Curriculum Guidelines, the changes of "jiritu-katudou" and expert
more » ... hers involving in the revised Special Need School Education Curriculum Guidelines. In addition, the origin of "jiritu-katudou" teacher in Hokkaido which was greatly influenced by Hokkaido's"Ryouiku" (medical care and education) and education system, the role of "jiritu-katudou" teacher and their expertise were also discussed. Bunichiro Kawamura, is commonly thought to be the father of Physically Disabled children in Hokkaido, whose philosophy is the integration of medical care and education, a team approach, and it also serves as the foundation for "jiritu-katudou" teachers in Hokkaido. In order to better understand the roles, benefits and challenges of "jiritu-katudou" teachers, it is necessary for them to play an active role in their own profession. There is a need to further explore the expertise of "jiritu-katudou" pioneers in Hokkaido.
doi:10.14943/ fatcat:sxqpnfnb6vc55gjg6gszh3b3qe