Identification and Quantitation of the Fatty Acids Composing the CoA Ester Pool of Bovine Retina, Heart, and Liver
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Several proteins found in retinal photoreceptor cells (guanylate cyclase activating protein, protein kinase A, recoverin, and transducin) are N-terminally modified with the fatty acids 12:0, 14:0, 14:1n-9, and 14:2n-6, whereas similar proteins in other tissues contain only 14:0. It has been hypothesized that the acyl-CoA pool of the retina contains amounts of 12:0, 14:1n-9, and 14:2n-6 elevated over 14:0, in comparison to other tissues, and this accounts for the specificity of N-terminal fatty
... f N-terminal fatty acylation. To test this hypothesis, we performed fatty acid analysis on total acyl-CoAs purified from bovine retina (light-adapted), heart, and liver. We also examined the N-and S-linked fatty acid composition of the total protein pools from these tissues. Acyl-CoAs were prepared from heart, liver, and retina and separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Identities of peaks were based on HPLC of standard 12:0, 14:0, 14: 1n-9, and 14:2n-6 CoAs. Total protein was subjected to base hydrolysis followed by acidic methanolysis to release S-and N-linked fatty acids, respectively, and fatty acid phenacyl esters were prepared for HPLC analysis. Retina had levels of 12:0 (2.7 ؎ 2.1%), 14:1n-9 (2.9 ؎ 2.2%), and 14:2n-6 (1.6 ؎ 0.7%) CoAs below that of 14:0 CoA (7.0 ؎ 1.8%). Likewise, heart levels of 14:2n-6 CoA (3.7 ؎ 0.1%) were near and 12:0 (2.6 ؎ 0.6%) and 14:1n-9 (0.7 ؎ 0.3%) CoAs were below that of 14:0 CoA (3.8 ؎ 1.0%). Liver had levels of 12:0 (16.1 ؎ 5.7%) and 14:2n-6 (8.1 ؎ 1.2%) CoAs above and 14:1n-9 CoA (1.2 ؎ 0.6%) below that of 14:0 CoA (5.9 ؎ 0.8%). Fatty acid analysis of total protein showed that all tissues contained S-linked 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1n-9. Retina proteins contained N-linked 14:0, 14:1n-9, and 14:2n-6, whereas heart and liver had only 14:0. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that the CoA ester pool of the retina is enriched with 12:0, 14:1n-9, and 14:2n-6 over 14:0, in comparison to other tissues. This suggests that alternative models must be considered for the regulation of N-terminal fatty acylation of proteins in photoreceptor cells.