Money creation and circulation in a credit economy

Wanting Xiong, Han Fu, Yougui Wang
2017 Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications  
h i g h l i g h t s • An agent-based model is developed to study money creation and circulation. • The money multiplier is determined by not only borrowing but also repayment. • The velocity of money depends on both money-related and debt-related factors. a b s t r a c t This paper presents a multi-agent model describing the main mechanisms of money creation and money circulation in a credit economy. Our special attention is paid to the role of debt in the two processes. With the agent-based
more » ... eling approach, macro phenomena are well founded in micro-based causalities. A hypothetical economy composed of a banking system and multiple traders is proposed. Instead of being a pure financial intermediary, the banking system is viewed as the center of money creation and an accelerator of money circulation. Agents finance their expenditures not only by their own savings but also through bank loans. Through mathematical calculations and numerical simulation, we identify the determinants of money multiplier and those of velocity of money. In contrast to the traditional money creation model, the money multiplier is determined not only by the behavior of borrowing but also by the behavior of repayment as well. The velocity of money is found to be influenced by both money-related factors such as the expenditure habits of agents with respect to their income and wealth and debt-related factors such as borrowing and repayment behaviors of debtors and the reserve requirements faced by banks.
doi:10.1016/j.physa.2016.08.023 fatcat:cnqz77kprngyflgwnwlh6m7a2e