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This study compares the undergraduate academic achievement of domestic English language learners (ELLs) of different age on arrival (AOA) cohorts to native English speakers (NS), all of whom graduated from local high schools. The broad research question that frames the study is how the literacy levels of ELLs of different AOA cohorts influence retention, progress, and grade point average (GPA) as indicators of academic success. Findings suggest that ELLs are resilient and determined as theydoi:10.47678/cjhe.v42i1.182449 fatcat:g3rk6gkyjrbardkuvkb6aqvar4