Endoscopic Profile of the Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a North–Eastern State of India - A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Koushik Chakma, Saumik Chakraborty, Avik Chakraborty
2021 Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare  
BACKGROUND Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the common medical emergencies throughout the world that may require hospital admission and results in high patient morbidity and mortality. The presentation of UGI bleeding depends on the amount and location of haemorrhage. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) is the preferred investigative procedure for UGIB because of its accuracy, low rate of complication, and its potential for therapeutic interventions. The present study has
more » ... resent study has been carried out to evaluate the different aetiological causes of UGIB in a tertiary care centre in the North Eastern part of India and compare the same with other studies done globally. METHODS This was a hospital based observational study with cross sectional design carried out in the Department of Medicine at Tripura Medical College & DR BRAM Teaching Hospital, Agartala. Total 376 patients were selected for this study for over a period of 2 years from January 2017 to December 2018. Upper GI endoscopy was performed in all patients after hemodynamic stabilisation. Rockall scoring system was used in non-variceal cases to predict the mortality in patients with upper GI bleeding. RESULTS A total of 376 patients had endoscopy for UGIB which included 260 (69.1 %) males and 116 (30.9 %) females, and the mean age was 47.9 (± 17.0) years. The most common cause of UGIB was peptic ulcer disease (duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer) consisting of 31.38 %, followed by erosive gastritis (23.94 %), oesophageal varix (11.17 %), portal hypertensive gastropathy (10.64 %), duodenitis (8.51 %). Gastrointestinal malignancy (gastric and oesophageal cancers) was reported in 3.98 % and rare causes of UGIB were Mallory-Weiss syndrome (1.86 %), and esophagitis (1.60 %). Among them 4.26 % of the patients had normal endoscopy findings. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, peptic ulcer disease was the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, followed by erosive gastritis. Rockall score of more than 4 was numerically associated with increased incidence of mortality. KEYWORDS Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB), Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (UGIE
doi:10.18410/jebmh/2021/231 fatcat:h5eozvrcj5alhopcpmvz73qb6m